Frame narration is where a story has multiple layers and individual stories are told within an over-arching narrative. Yuri Norstein’ ‘Tale of Tales’ (1979) is an example of frame narration and the animator using narrative as a catalyst. It structures itself like a human memory, stories are recalled by associations rather than chronological order. The film uses several recurring characters, a poet, a little girl playing jump-rope with a disheartened bull, a young boy feeding apples to crows, and a grey wolf. These recurring characters tell the story of Russian culture in the 20th century, the Soviet Union and the losses suffered in World War Two. Each scene propels and accelerates the story to form the associations of memory and imagination.
(Tom Margett – The Animator as a Catalyst, 2017).